Various narrow gauge military and industrial railways appeared in Albania from the early years of the 20th century, but none of these remains operational. The present day standard gauge system dates mainly from the period immediately following the Second World War. From the late 20th century the network suffered extensive degradation during periods of internal unrest and continued poor state of the economy. Repairs and extensions have been undertaken, but services remain prone to interruption owing to lack of resources.
Freight and passenger services are operated by the State railway company. The Albanian network is connected with the rest of Europe by a freight-only link with neighbouring Montenegro.
A tram system is included in future plans for the capital Tiranë, but little progress has been made on its implementation.
In 2018, a study was launched for a new 130km rail link between Pogradec and Florina in Greece, connecting the rail networks of the two countries.