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The first railway in Argentina opened in 1857, between El Parque and La Floresta, both places today being within the city of Buenos Aires (The original terminus at El Parque is now the site of the Teatro Colón). It was built to a gauge of 5ft 6in (1676mm). This gauge was used extensively on the central plains of Argentina; although metre gauge was used in the mountainous north, and a network to the east of the river Paraná (linking the capital with Paraguay) was built to standard (1435mm) gauge. In the south of the country, railway development was limited to a few isolated lines, mostly narrow gauge.

Railway coverage today remains extensive, and freight lines are well used, but passenger services outside the major cities are patchy.

There is a metre gauge international connection with Bolivia and a standard gauge connection with Uruguay. There were formerly two metre gauge international links with Chile, but only one of these remains in use. An international connection with Brazil takes the form of a bridge over the Uruguay river to Uruguiana, where the standard gauge lines of Trenes Argentinos in Argentina interchange traffic with the metre gauge Rumo in Brazil. A former standard gauge international link with Paraguay reopened in 2002; this link was diverted in 2012 around the site of a lake to be formed over the original alignment by the construction of a new dam.

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The End of the World Train
The End of the World Train
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Photo image from the Tren del Fin del Mundo website
Flag image from CIA World Factbook