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The first Danish railway opened in 1847 between København and Roskilde, a distance of 30km. It was built to standard (1435mm) gauge.

Denmark consists of a long peninsular and a series of islands. Its complex geography heavily influenced the development of the railways, and train ferries were common. Only in 1997 with the opening of the combined bridge and tunnel across the Great Belt between the islands of Sjælland (Zealand) and Fyn (Funen) were the various sections of the network at last physically connected. Another sea crossing, that to Sweden, was superseded in 2000 with the opening of the Øresund bridge and tunnel. One important train ferry remains, across the Fehmarnbelt which separates Denmark from Germany. This represents the shortest route between the principal centres of the two countries; it, too, is the subject of proposals for a fixed link.

Under EU regulations, train operation and infrastructure costs must be separately accountable. Denmark, like many other European countries, has chosen to implement this by spinning off a separate infrastructure company (Banedanmark). The State Railway company still operates most long distance trains and the København S-banen. Many smaller railways were privately owned and remain so.

National and International Railways

Fehmarnbelt / Femern Sund Bælt

Local Passenger Operators

Metro and trams

Tourist Railways

Skinnecykler (Cyclorail, Draisines)

Pedal powered trolleys on rail lines

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Flag image from CIA World Factbook