Egypt was the location of the first railway line in Africa, opened in 1854 between Alexandria and Kafr-el-Zayat, extending to Cairo two years later. It was built to standard (1435mm) gauge. The line subsequently extended to Suez, and for a few years prior to the opening of the Suez Canal a great deal of Anglo-Indian traffic was carried between the two points, avoiding the long and perilous sea journey around the Cape of Good Hope.
The standard gauge main line eventually extended along the Nile Valley as far a Luxor, but from there to Aswan the line was built to 3ft 6in (1067mm) narrow gauge. This was part of Cecil Rhodes’ grand vision for an African transcontinental railway “from Cairo to the Cape of Good Hope”. Railways of this gauge were built in the Sudan, eastern and southern Africa; however, only the countries in the south of the continent were ultimately linked together by this gauge. The line from Luxor to Aswan was converted to standard gauge in the 1920s.
In addition to the standard gauge network, a number of industrial narrow gauge railways were built. Several 600mm gauge lines in the Nile Valley near Luxor remain in operation, for the transportation of sugar cane.
There are no international links today. A link with Palestine was established following World War I, which became of grreat strategic importance during World War II when it formed part of a through route to Turkey. The link was severed on Israeli independence in 1948. A rail connection to Tobruk in Libya opened in 1942, but closed in 1946 when it was no longer required for military purposes.
In recent years, it has been proposed to extend the railway from Aswan to Wadi Halfa in Sudan, where it would connect (with a change of gauge) with the Sudan Railways network. The extension would replace an existing ferry service on the river Nile.
Cairo has a modern Metro and an antiquated tram system. Alexandria and Heliopolis (a suburb of Cairo) also have trams.
Flag image from CIA World Factbook