The first railway in Moldova opened in 1867, in what is now the secessionist region of Pridnestrovie, from the Ukrainian border to Tiraspol. This was extended in 1871 to Chişinău in Moldova proper. The line was built to Russian standard gauge (then 1524mm). Further development took place at the same gauge, including in 1877 a line as far as Iaşi in Romania, a country whose railway network is for the most part standard (1435mm) gauge.
Following the First World War, Moldova became part of Romania. The railways were converted to standard gauge and several new lines constructed. Then, following the Second World War, Moldova was taken into the Soviet Union and the lines were regauged to 1520mm.
Moldovan Railways was created on the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and owns and operates the network to this day. There are international connections with Romania (break of gauge) and Pridnestrovie.
See also Pridnestrovie.
Flag image from CIA World Factbook