The RAF base on the island of Masirah in the Indian Ocean was served by a narrow gauge railway network from the Second World War until the 1960s. It was maintained in working order and saw occasional use until 1977, when the base and the island were handed over to the Omani government.
There were no other railways in Oman until the Al Hoota (or Al Hotta) Cave opened to the public as a show cave in 2006. The complex has a narrow gauge railway linking the visitor centre with the cave entrance. New electric trains were introduced in 2011.
In 2013, a company was established to manage the development of a planned standard (1435mm) gauge rail network of over 2000km. The first section will be 171km from the port of Sohar to Buraimi on the border with UAE, where it will connect with Etihad Rail. Also in 2013, a feasibility study was commissioned for a metro or light rail transit system in the capital, Masqat (Muscat).