The first railway in Pridnestrovie opened in 1867 between Tiraspol and the border with Ukraine. It was built to Russian standard gauge (then 1524mm). Further development took place at the same gauge.
Following the First World War, Moldova, including Pridnestrovie, became part of Romania. The railways were converted to standard gauge and several new lines constructed. Then, following the Second World War, Moldova was taken into the Soviet Union and the lines were regauged to 1520mm.
On the dissolution of the Soviet Union the rail network passed to Moldovan Railways. Following the secession of Pridnestrovie, Moldovan Railways continued to operate trains until a new administration was formed in 2004. Besides the main line through Tiraspol with its important international connections to Moldova and Ukraine, there is a separate short branch in the north of the region with a connection to Moldovan Railways at Rybnitsa.