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In 1854, the Austro-Hungarian Empire opened a horse drawn railway line from Lisava to Bazijas. It was converted to locomotive traction in 1856. Although both towns are in present day Romania, about 27km of it fell within present day Serbia. Only a short stretch of this line remains in use today.

The primary railway development in Serbia itself commenced in 1884 with the opening of the 271km line from Beograd to Niš. It was constructed to standard (1435mm) gauge. Subsequent railway development used a variety of gauges, a complex situation which was only gradually resolved during the reconstruction of the then Yugoslavia following the Second World War.

Serbia has international rail links with Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro and Romania. Reconstruction of the 760mm gauge Šargan Eight railway was completed in 2010 as far as Višegrad is Bosnia, but at the time of writing no regular train services were operating on this section.

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Flag image from CIA World Factbook