The greater part of the railways in Tajikistan were constructed when the country was part of the Soviet Union. They were built to Russian gauge (1520mm).
In the south of the country, two lines enter from Uzbekistan and run to the capital Dushanbe, one via Tursunzade, the other via Shaartuz, Kolkhozabad and Qurghonteppa. There is a branch from Kolkhozabad to Nizhniy Panj, near the Afghan border, and the line continues beyond Dushanbe to Kolamikhon.
A separate line in the north of the country was essentially a transit route between two parts of Uzbekistan, passing through the city of Khujand. A new line entirely within Uzbekistan opened in 2016 effectively bypassing this section, which is however still used for some local traffic.
Following the independence of Tajikistan, a new line was constructed from the existing line at Qurghonteppa to serve industrial centres at Dangara, Kulob and Moskovskiy. The line was completed in 1999. There are proposals for further extensions, including a line to Afghanistan.
Flag image from CIA World Factbook