The first and only railway in what was then the Autonomous Oblast of Nagorno-Karabakh opened in 1944 between the regional capital, Stepanakert, and Yevlax in Azerbaijan, when both were in the Azerbaijan Republic of the Soviet Union. It was built to Russian standard gauge of 1520mm.
On the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 Nagorno-Karabakh declared its independence from Azerbaijan. This was not recognized by Azerbaijan and conflict, in which Nagorno-Karabakh was assisted by Armenia, ensued. The railway was badly damaged in the conflict and there is no prospect of reopening until the political situation is resolved.
In 2017, the administration approved a new republican style constitution and adopted the name of Artsakh. This is considered to include the former territory of Nagorno-Karabakh and a corridor of former Azerbaijani territory between Nagorno-Karabakh and Armenia. Artsakh is not recognised internationally. Armenia considers it an integral part of that country.